Glazing

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Glazing Organization

The location, shape and size of the windows affect the distribution and depth of daylight and the visual comfort of the occupants. In general, rooms that have windows on more than one side have more uniform daylighting. Windows and portions of windows that fall below the task plane contribute very little to the useful daylight in the space. Windows with higher head heights distribute the daylight deeper in to the space. The common strategies for window design are:



  • Separate windows by their function in to view windows and daylight windows so that they can detailed appropriately. View windows can be lower, daylight windows are higher.
  • Use long horizontal continuous windows rather than punched openings to eliminate contrast between windows and the wall areas between windows.
  • Locate windows so they are flush with ceiling and if possible with the side walls.
Shallow spaces like private offices can be effectively designed with a vision and transom window arrangement, where each window had an appropriate shading strategy. Source: The Weidt Group


Section Key Resources
  • Electric Power Research Institute. 1997. Daylighting Design Smart and Simple.
  • Moore, F. 1985. Concepts and Practice of Architectural Daylighting. New York. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
  • Robbins, C. 1986. Daylighting Design and Analysis. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company.
  • Carmody, J., Selkowitz, S.E., Lee, E.S., Arasteh, D., Willmert, T. 2004. Window Systems for High-Performance Buildings. New York: Norton & Company.
Links

Lead Author(s): Prasad Vaidya

Window Design

Windows are the interface between the inside and the outside environment. Their properties predefine the provision of daylight, possibilities for natural ventilation, quantity and quality of view, the design and use of electric lighting, levels of privacy and glare.

Window design therefore refers to the window type, size and shape, as well as to the placement within the façade. The choice of the window type depends on the requirements for weather protection, ventilation rates and the interference of an opened window with the internal furnishing.

Properties of different window types when opened at a typical angle Side hung, opening to inside Bottom hung, opening to inside Sliding, opened pane always covers part of window Horizontal pivoted, lower part opening to outside Top hung, opening to outside
Side hung window.jpg Bottom hung window.jpg Side opening window.jpg Horizontal pivot window.jpg Top hung window.jpg
weather protection - + - 0 0
max achievable ventilation rate + - 0 + 0
adjustability of opening size + - + + +
flexibility for placement of furniture - + + 0 +
window size affecting the amount of mullions limited by weight of the glazing and frame properties limited by weight of the glazing and frame properties larger window sizes possible limited by weight of the glazing and frame properties limited by weight of the glazing and frame properties
location of manual controlse has to be directly accessible indirect control e.g. for clerestory windows possible has to be directly accessible has to be directly accessible has to be directly accessible
Façade designs with different window sizes and types

This is also related to window size and placement within the facade. In field studies an increase in occupant satisfaction with window size could be observed. However this effect is stronger with less mullions and / or a more complex or attractive view content. Very small window areas were observed unsatisfactory. For large or maximum window areas occupant satisfaction was strongly observed to be depending on perceived privacy and view content. Regarding window shape, horizontal windows were observed to be preferred to vertical arrangements of the same size. Additionally skyline height and the occupant’s position in the room in relation to the façade were found to be influential. This also refers to the placement of windows within the façade, affecting the visual impression of the daylit room as well as the perception of draft by opened windows.

Another parameter to be considered in window design is the protection from glare, which is also influenced by the luminance of the window in relation to the surrounding wall area. However this is also affected by the shading system, window size, the quality of the view, the degree of specular reflections from interior surfaces, as well as the visual and aesthetic interior qualities of the room.

Section Key Resources
  • Galasiu, A.D., Veitch, J.A. (2006): Occupant preferences and satisfaction with the luminous environment and control systems in daylit offices: a literature review, Energy and Buildings 38 (2006), pp. 728‐742
  • Tuaycharoen, N., Tregenza, PR. (2007): View and discomfort glare from windows, Lighting Research and Technology, 39,2, pp 185‐200
  • Boubekri, M., Boyer, L.L. (1992): Effect of window size and sunlight presence on glare, Lighting Research and Technology, 24(2), pp 69‐74
  • Keighley, E. C. (1973): Visual requirements and reduced fenestration in offices. Buildings – a study of window shape, Building Science, 8, 321‐331
  • Ne’eman, E. et al (1970): critical minimum acceptable window size, a study of window design and provision of view, Lighting Research and Technology, 2, S. 17‐27
  • Inui, M. (1980): Views through a window. Proceedings on daylight, Physical, Psychological and architectural aspects. CIE, S. 323‐331
  • Markus, T.A. (1967): The significance of sunshine and view for office workers, in R.G.
  • Hopkinson (ed) Sunlight in Buildings, Boewcentrum International: Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Links
  • No links specific to this section have been listed.

Lead Author(s): Aris Tsangrassoulis

Functional Division of a Window

Influences of window properties
Different functional divisions of windows in curtain walls

The façade design and the functional division of the window depends on several influences, like the window type, size and shape, as well as to the placement within the façade. The choice of the window type depends on the requirements for weather protection, ventilation rates and the interference of an opened window with the internal furnishing. The maximum size of openable side hung, top hung and bottom hung windows is also influenced by properties of the frame and the weight of the glazing. Largest window sizes are possible for fixed glazing. Additionally windows can be divided according to whether they are designed for visual purposes (daylighting and view) only or for ventilation as well. Separating mullions should be placed above or below the observer’s most common eye level in order not to obstruct the view, and generally less mullions are preferred by occupants. In case of curtain walls the division of windows refers predominantly to the construction grid, and divisions are often placed at sill height or above standing eye level.

In field studies an increase in occupant satisfaction with window size could be observed, while very small window areas were observed unsatisfactory.

Section Key Resources
  • Galasiu, A.D., Veitch, J.A. (2006): Occupant preferences and satisfaction with the luminous environment and control systems in daylit offices: a literature review, Energy and Buildings 38 (2006), pp. 728‐742
  • Tuaycharoen, N., Tregenza, PR. (2007): View and discomfort glare from windows, Lighting Research and Technology, 39,2, pp 185‐200
  • Boubekri, M., Boyer, L.L. (1992): Effect of window size and sunlight presence on glare, Lighting Research and Technology, 24(2), pp 69‐74
  • Keighley, E. C. (1973): Visual requirements and reduced fenestration in offices. Buildings – a study of window shape, Building Science, 8, 321‐331
  • Ne’eman, E. et al (1970): critical minimum acceptable window size, a study of window design and provision of view, Lighting Research and Technology, 2, S. 17‐27
  • Inui, M. (1980): Views through a window. Proceedings on daylight, Physical, Psychological and architectural aspects. CIE, S. 323‐331
  • Markus, T.A. (1967): The significance of sunshine and view for office workers, in R.G.
  • Hopkinson (ed) Sunlight in Buildings, Boewcentrum International: Rotterdam, The Netherlands
Links

Lead Author(s): Aris Tsangrassoulis

Page Key Resources
  • No publications general to this page have been listed.
Links
  • No links general to this page have been listed.
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